If all feet were "standard" there would be no need for custom shoes!
Creating a custom fit often requires modifying a last to accomodate orthotics, widening the shoe for bunions, or lengthening one or both feet because the perfect last for the job is unavailable.
Some changes are "cosmetic"--changing a pointed toe to a round or square one. Some feet could never be shod without the creative "leathering" of the last.
Remember, the last must mirror the foot measurements to successfully create appropriate footwear that fits.
In the process of making custom shoes and collecting vintage lasts, I've observed the techniques of various shoe makers to tailor a last to the shoe being made.
I'm sharing these photos to expand your knowledge of the adaptability of lasts. A last that's "not quite right" can be perfected to do the job required. Some of these adaptations were made by Old World craftsmen who learned the trade from their fathers and families.
These craftsmen are retiring. I'm proud to preserve their skills in adapting lasts in the photos offered here.